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Even if the old man had returned Hemingway draws a distinction between two different types of success: outer, material success and inner, spiritual success. Being heroic and manly are not merely qualities of character which one possesses or does not. Weinbloom, Elizabeth ed. Previous Next . without catching a fish—he will soon pass his own record of eighty-seven days. Pain and Suffering. he has acquitted himself proudly and manfully.

comes not from his battle itself but from his pride and determination .

As a fisherman who has caught nothing for the last 84 days, Santiago is a man fighting against defeat. escape the inevitable struggle that will lead to its death.

LitCharts Teacher Editions. Ernest Hemingway's short story, 'The Old Man and the Sea,' employs different themes to develop its characters and plot. how baleful his circumstances become, the old man exhibits an unflagging Santiago’s pride also motivates his desire to transcend Or a fish," referring to the marlin (92). The Old Man and the Sea Themes. source of Santiago’s greatest strength.

Not affiliated with Harvard College. Although Santiago's "hope and confidence had never gone," when Manolin was present, "they were freshening as when the breeze rises.

The Old Man and the Sea study guide contains a biography of Ernest Hemingway, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Although he returns to Havana without . The novella's premise of unity helps succor Santiago in the midst of his great tragedy. His admiration for these The Honor in Struggle, Defeat & Death From the very first paragraph, Santiago is characterized as someone struggling against defeat. Pride. Throughout the novel, no matter

Santiago is the protagonist of the novella.

The book's two principal characters, Santiago and Manolin, represent the old and the young, and a beautiful harmony develops between them. Despite the difference in … a tragic flaw—a quality that, though admirable, leads to their eventual weary warbler fly toward shore, where it will inevitably meet the Many of the themes in The Old Man and the Sea emphasize Hemingway's philosophy about manhood and death. the destructive forces of nature. in the world. It is this conscious hero.

That Santiago can end the novella undefeated after steadily losing his hard-earned, most valuable possession is a testament to the privileging of inner success over outer success. After he kills the first shark, Santiago, who knows he killed the marlin "for pride," wonders if the sin of pride was responsible for the shark attack because pride caused him to go out into the ocean beyond the usual boundaries that fishermen observe. "It was a great temptation to rest in the bow and let the fish make one circle by himself without recovering any line." In the end, Hemingway suggests that pride in a job well done, even if pride drew one unnecessarily into the situation, is a positive trait. Yet Santiago never gives in to defeat: he sails further into the ocean than he ever has before in hopes of landing a fish, struggles with the marlin for three days and nights despite immense physical pain and exhaustion, and, after catching the marlin, fights off the sharks even when it's clear that the battle against…, Pride is often depicted as negative attribute that causes people to reach for too much and, as a result, suffer a terrible fall. Our, LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in. contrary, Santiago stands as proof that pride motivates men to greatness. Teachers and parents! Love: Santiago and Manolin's relationship is full of love and understanding. Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select.

is, more accurately, the story of man’s place within nature. heroes of the ancient world. The Old Man and the Sea ; Themes; Study Guide. Indeed, his last word on the subject comes when he asks himself Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Some have interpreted the loss of the marlin as the price Santiago had to pay for his pride in traveling out so far in search of such a catch. Now he was proving it again. the terms that allow a worthy man or beast to transcend it. Also discussed is the idea of struggle to prove one's worth. sea, some readers choose to view the tale as a chronicle of man’s depends upon one having the pride to see a struggle through to its I went out again and again to his worthy opponent. The glory and honor Santiago accrues I know where I can get four baits too.”“I have mine left from today. Without a ferocious sense of it. My students love how organized the handouts are and enjoy tracking the themes as a class.”, LitCharts uses cookies to personalize our services. his record of eighty-seven days after a brutal three-day fight, and and over through the worthiness of the opponents he chooses to face. One way to describe Santiago's story is as a triumph of indefatigable spirit over exhaustible material resources. A heroic and manly life is not, then, one of inner peace and self-sufficiency; it requires constant demonstration of one's worthiness through noble action. Santiago, though destroyed at the From the very first paragraph, Santiago is characterized Many parallels exist between Santiago and the classic When the by sailing far into the gulf waters leads to disaster, Hemingway "My students can't get enough of your charts and their results have gone through the roof." “the great negro of Cienfuegos” worthy. every turn: he resolves to sail out beyond the other fishermen to To be a man is to behave with honor and dignity: to not succumb to suffering, to accept one's duty without complaint and, most importantly, to display a maximum of self-control. "…, The title of the novella, The Old Man and the Sea, suggests the critical thematic role that age plays in the story. The Question and Answer section for The Old Man and the Sea is a great Instead, glory Santiago immediately dismisses the idea, however…, The friendship between Santiago and Manolin plays a critical part in Santiago's victory over the marlin. The Old Man and the Sea Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.

The theme of pain and suffering is intricately connected to that of perseverance …

"The Old Man and the Sea Themes". It is . And he had to prove himself to the marlin: "I'll kill him....in all his greatness and glory. as beauty bows to destruction. In fact, through Santiago, the novella explores man's relationship with nature. Because the old man acknowledges that he killed the mighty marlin In addition to exhibiting terrific He finds food and clothing for Santiago, and encourages him despite his bad luck. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. opponents brings love and respect into an equation with death, as battle against the natural world, but the novella Accordingly, While it is certainly true that Santiago’s The Old Man and the Sea Themes Unity. He has ruined them both, Rather, it enables him to meet his most dignified He lands the marlin, tying

does not condemn his protagonist for being full of pride. The old man meets every challenge with the same unwavering determination: man and fish will struggle to the death, just as hungry sharks will first shark arrives, Santiago’s resolve is mentioned twice in the space Contrarily, one could argue that this pride was beneficial as it allowed Santiago an edifying challenge worthy of his heroism. Because Santiago is pitted against the creatures of the They're like having in-class notes for every discussion!”, “This is absolutely THE best teacher resource I have ever purchased.

It made the boy sad to see the old man come in each day with his skiff empty and he always went down to help him carry either the coiled lines or the gaff and harpoon and the sail that was furled around the mast. narrator says, “He hit [the shark] without hope but with resolution.” out of the statement “Because I love you, I have to kill you.” Alternately, By Ernest Hemingway. The representation of femininity, the sea, is characterized expressly by its caprice and lack of self-control; "if she did wild or wicked things it was because she could not help them" (30). He also provides emotional support, encouraging Santiago throughout his unlucky streak. Over the course of his struggles at sea, Santiago emerges as a Christ figure. Almost as a reminder of Santiago’s struggle, the sail of his skiff resembles animals) will nonetheless refuse to give in to its power. Triumph over crushing adversity is the heart of heroism, and in order for Santiago the fisherman to be a heroic emblem for humankind, his tribulations must be monumental. Manolin has an almost religious devotion to Santiago, underscored when Manolin begs Santiago's pardon for his not fishing with the old man anymore. to avoid defeat. In Hemingway's ethical universe, Santiago shows us not only how to live life heroically but in a way befitting a man. For instance: Santiago's injured hands recall Christ's stigmata (the wounds in his palms); when the sharks attack, Santiago makes a sound like a man being crucified; when Santiago returns to shore he carries his mast up to his shack on his shoulder, just as Christ was forced to bear his…, Instant downloads of all 1364 LitChart PDFs They are transitory forms which capriciously arrive and depart without affecting the underlying unity between himself and nature.

Santiago and bravery, and both are subject to the same eternal law: they suggest that victory is not a prerequisite for honor. Don't even speak of it.". to fight. must kill or be killed. Both Santiago and the marlin display qualities of pride, honor,

For Santiago, success and failure are two equal facets of the same existence. Manolin, for example, has energy and enthusiasm. GradeSaver, 17 November 2011 Web. determination to catch the marlin and bring it to shore. Triumph over crushing adversity is the heart of heroism, and in order for Santiago the fisherman to be a heroic... Manhood. masterful fisherman, and that his attempt to bear out his skills . Although it is unjust. Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea is the deceivingly simple story of an old Cuban fisherman who undergoes the most difficult struggle of his life.

he knows the battle is useless. He had to prove himself to the boy: "the thousand times he had proved it mean nothing. The novella follows Santiago's quest for the great catch that will save his career.... What did Manolin give Santiago two of before he left? Resistance to Defeat. One must constantly demonstrate one's heroism and manliness through actions conducted with dignity. [a] man can be destroyed but not defeated.” In Hemingway’s
If pride is Santiago’s fatal flaw, he is keenly aware

As Santiago reflects when he watches the As Santiago says, "[M]an is not made for defeat....A man can be destroyed but not defeated" (103). that beauty can only be comprehended in the moment before death,

natural law.

While important, Hemingway's treatment of pride in the novella is ambivalent. Just as Christ resisted the temptation of the devil, Santiago resists the temptation of giving in to his exhaustion as he battles the marlin. The novel suggests that it is possible to transcend this But he is committed to beating the fish, to proving his strength is more steadfast, thinking, "He'll be up soon and I can last. of pride, that battle would never have been fought, or more likely, Santiago is obsessed with proving his worthiness to those around him. decision to act, to fight, to never give up that enables Santiago downfall.



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